Soham Mukherjee, Sagar Kumar
OUTBREAK OF NOVEL CORONA VIRUS
since reports of a mysterious pneumonia-like condition began circulating in December, the public health world has been keeping its eye on the events unfolding in China. As the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths have risen, details of the Novel Coronavirus now known as 2019-nCoV have dripped through. Here’s what we know so far about this evolving situation
coronavirus, pneumonia, healthcare
What is the Novel Coronavirus? The 2019 novel coronavirus, temporarily named 2019-nCoV, was identified in China at the end of 2019 and is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Corona viruses are viruses that circulate among animals, but some of them are also known to affect humans. After they have infected humans, they can eventually be transmitted to humans. Where do Coronavirus come from? A wide range of animals is known to be the source of coronaviruses. For instance, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) originated from dromedary camels and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is thought to be originated from bats spread to civet cats to humans. Is this virus comparable to SARS or to the seasonal flu (influenza)? This novel coronavirus detected in China is genetically closely related to the 2003 SARS virus and appears to have similar characteristics. SARS emerged at the end of 2002 in China and more than 8 000 SARS-cases were reported by 33 countries over a period of eight months. At the time, one in ten people who contracted SARS died. The current 2019-nCoV outbreak has caused around 10 000 reported cases in China since the end of December 2019 (as of end of January 2020. ) Other countries have also reported cases of 2019-nCoV, including some in the EU/EEA. Can the virus spread from person to person? Yes, human to human transmission has been confirmed. The World Health Organization said that the preliminary R0 (reproduction number) estimate is 1. 4 to 2. 5, meaning that every person infected could infect between 1. 4 and 2. 5 people. What is the mode of transmission? How (easily) does it spread? While animals are the source of the virus, this virus is now spreading from one person to another (human-to-human transmission). There is currently not enough epidemiological information to determine how easily and sustainably this virus is spreading between people. The virus seems to be transmitted mainly via respiratory droplets that people sneeze, cough, or exhale. The incubation period for 2019-nCov (i. e. the time between exposure to the virus and onset of symptoms) is currently estimated at between two and 12 days. While people are mostly infectious when they present (flu-like) symptoms, there are indications that some people maybe be able to transmit the virus without presenting any symptoms or before the symptoms appear. What are the symptoms of 2019-nCoV? From what we know so far, the virus can cause mild, flu-like symptoms such as Fever , cough , difficulty breathing , pain in the muscles and tiredness. More serious cases develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and septic shock that can lead to the death of the patient. People with existing chronic conditions seem to be more vulnerable to severe illness. Are some people more at risk than others? Generally, young children, elderly people and those with underlying conditions (e. g. hypertension, heart disorders, diabetes, liver disorders, and respiratory disease) are expected to be more at risk of developing severe symptoms. As this is an emerging disease and there is only limited data available, we do not yet know which groups of people might be prone to a more severe outcome following infection with 2019-nCoV. Is there a treatment for the disease caused by 2019-nCoV? There is no specific treatment for this disease so the approach used to treat patients with coronavirus-related infections is to treat the clinical symptoms (e.g. fever). Supportive care (e. g. supportive therapy and monitoring – oxygen therapy, fluid management and antivirals) can be highly effective for those infected. Which medications are used for the treatment of coronavirus pneumonia? Protease inhibitors (eg, lopinavir/ritonavir) demonstrated antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection.  Interferon alfa and interferon beta have activity against SARS-CoV in vitro and in animal models. Limited human data seemed to demonstrate some beneficial effect. Ribavirin is not active against SARS-CoV in vitro, and studies have not shown clinical efficacy. Therefore, this medication is not recommended for this infection. Is there a vaccine against 2019-nCov? There are currently no vaccines against coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV. That is why it is very important to prevent infection or contain further spread after an infection. Why is the number of cases increasing so rapidly? Two main reasons for the rapid increase in the number of cases are that the virus is spreading from one person to another and that the capacity to detect cases is improving. A sudden increase in the number of cases is often observed during the initial phase of an outbreak of emerging disease. When should I be tested for 2019-nCoV? If you have an acute respiratory infection (sudden onset of at least one of a cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath), And in the 14 days before the start of your symptoms, you were either : In close contact with a confirmed or probable case of 2019-nCoV infection, or travelled to an area where there is ongoing community transmission of 2019-nCoV, or worked in or attended a healthcare facility where patients with 2019-nCoV infections were being treated, you should contact your doctor by phone for advice.
Номер журнала Вестник науки №2 (23) том 2
Ссылка для цитирования:
Soham Mukherjee, Sagar Kumar OUTBREAK OF NOVEL CORONA VIRUS // Международный научный журнал Вестник науки №2 (23) том 2. ISSN 2712-8849. С. 136 - 139. 2020 г. // Электронный ресурс: https://www.вестник-науки.рф/article/2793 (дата обращения: 18.10.2021 г.)