Atemova A.Z. TRANSITION TO LOW-WASTE LIFESTYLE IN THE MODERN WORLD
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Atemova A.Z.

  


TRANSITION TO LOW-WASTE LIFESTYLE IN THE MODERN WORLD

  


Аннотация:
The article examines the current environmental problems of the world community. The main emphasis is on ways to transition to a low-waste macroeconomic and microeconomic lifestyle. The article also mentions an eco-business initiative that is gaining great popularity in the world   

Ключевые слова:
low-waste lifestyle, renewables, eco-business initiative, sorting, environmental practice   


Today humanity is facing numerous environmental problems. If we do not pay attention to these problems right now, we may face even bigger natural disasters in the future. Pollution is one of the biggest problems. Plants and motor vehicles are number one pollutants. Their harmful emissions pollute the environment. Oil spills and acid rains make the World Ocean dirty. Global warming is the result of human activity. It is characterized by rising temperatures of the oceans and earth’s surface causing rise in sea levels and melting of polar ice cover. Apart from that, floods, desertification and excessive snow are also signs of global warming. Today forests cover about 30% of land. Every year this figure decreases more and more. People clear new territories for residential buildings, new plants and factories. We must realize that deforestation causes the extinction of animals and plants. Today CFC’s are banned in many industries. However, we must remember that if this problem is not taken under control, harmful rays of the sun will easily penetrate the atmosphere. The biggest hole in the ozone layer is located above the Antarctic. [1] Today, despite accounting for only about 18 per cent of the global population, the advanced economies consume about 70 per cent of the world’s energy, the vast majority of which (87 per cent) comes from fossil fuels. The North-South divide is thus inextricably linked to carbon dioxide emissions. And, in fact, it has reared its head in every United Nations climate negotiation. Resistance usually comes down to a single consideration: current economic prosperity. Thus, the only realistic solution to the climate crisis is to replace fossil-fuel-based energy with renewables quickly and cost-effectively enough to keep the engines of growth running. Fortunately, we already know that this is possible. The key is a global carbon market. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol attempted to use a system of tradable quotas to establish a price on carbon dioxide emissions. While several countries ultimately refused to join the protocol—the US signed, but didn’t ratify it—the carbon market that it created helped to make clean energy more profitable and dirty energy less so. [2] Although the Kyoto Protocol collapsed, the world has built upon this work, and some of its largest economies—China, the European Union, and several US states, including California—are now using emissions-trading schemes. The value of traded global markets for carbon dioxide allowances surged by 250 per cent last year, and now exceeds $178 billion annually. The Kyoto Protocol is an example of a macroeconomic low-waste lifestyle. It is necessary that such agreements are more often concluded between countries, this will lead to an improvement in the state of the environment throughout the world. By enabling actors to buy and sell rights to use the global commons, such green markets naturally combine efficiency and equity. And yet the enduring North-South divide—and especially the rift between the US and China—is hampering our ability to seize their potential. We have the tools to arrest, and even reverse, climate change. It is time to come together and use them. [3] It is also necessary to mention the so-called environmental performance index. The index measures the country's achievements in terms of the state of ecology and natural resource management on the basis of 22 indicators in 10 categories that reflect various aspects   The table shows the results of the EPI for 2019. As we can see, Switzerland is in first place in the table. What is the secret of this country? How did Switzerland manage to achieve such a result if, back in the 90s, the ecological situation in this country was terrible? Everything is simple. Switzerland decided to switch to a low-waste lifestyle at the microeconomic level. What does it consist of? The main principle of the Swiss environmental system is “the polluter pays.” It operates at all levels - from large corporations to residents of the country. For lazy people, packages are sold with special markings for 11, 35 and 60 liters. 60 liters cost about 3.8 francs. This money goes to sorting and disposal. Everywhere there are separate containers for paper, cardboard, glass, metal, plastic and food waste. Large stores often have collection points for batteries, light bulbs and plastic bottles. For those who especially care about the environment or just want to save, there are still fifty types of containers. For example, for coffee capsules or wine bottle corks. In cities and villages special garbage trucks drive that collect different types of garbage. Trash that cannot be reused becomes fuel for plants that recycle waste into energy. The energy that is generated by burning waste provides heat to homes. There is not a single landfill left in Switzerland, and all the garbage is converted into new goods or energy. I think this is the best example of a low-waste microeconomic lifestyle. Of course, Russia and many other countries should follow this example What should we do nowadays to stimulate eco-business initiative, which is actively developing in many industries in our days? Environmental degradation occurs not only in the external environment. The inner world of a person suffers no less than city lakes, parks, reserves. The economic crisis, bad habits, tedious monotonous work in a closed team - all this makes a person lose heart, fall into a depressive and aggressive state. Ecological or “green” business is the provision of services in the field of waste collection and disposal, eco-tourism, environmental protection, resource conservation and production of “environmentally friendly” goods. Eco-business is becoming a new form of environmental practice. In Japan, this type of business has existed since the 90s of the last century, gradually there has developed a clear understanding of its key points. The president of the Ecobusiness Network entrepreneurial organization, Makoto Ando, identifies the key concepts of ecobusiness, which are called the “five R”: refine, reduce, recycle, reuse, reconvert energy. [5] These words most broadly characterize the concept of «green» or ecological business. The environmental business is an attractive area of capital investment, it is supported by the government, companies from almost all industries and services are involved in it. It becomes obvious that it is necessary to consider the trends of this type of business on a large scale among various production and product categories and areas. Summing up, it is necessary to mention the words of the great writer Ursula Le Guin, who said: «One thing annoys me: before we destroy ourselves, we will destroy our planet..»

  


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Номер журнала Вестник науки №5 (26) том 3

  


Ссылка для цитирования:

Atemova A.Z. TRANSITION TO LOW-WASTE LIFESTYLE IN THE MODERN WORLD // Вестник науки №5 (26) том 3. С. 71 - 75. 2020 г. ISSN 2712-8849 // Электронный ресурс: https://www.вестник-науки.рф/article/3089 (дата обращения: 02.12.2022 г.)




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