Zubko D.D., Miribyan E.R., Fomenko L.N.
AMERICANISMS IN MODERN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE *
The article is devoted to the actual problem of the influence of American English on modern Russian. We consider the causes, sources, ways of penetration of Americanisms in the Russian language, as well as the main areas of their use. The issues of language policy in relation to foreign words are touched. An attempt is made to analyze the causes of the global “Americanization” of world languages.
English language, American English, Americanization, borrowings, neologisms, words
The connection of language and culture, language and society are expressed in the immediate response of the language system to global processes occurring in society, in the adaptation of the language system to the changes caused by these processes. The time of social change, the time of intensive changes in political, social and cultural conditions of society is also the time of a certain restructuring of the language system, primarily at the lexical level. According to M. A. Breyter the lexical level of the language, the most mobile and subject to change, on one hand, and clearly structured - on the other, in an explicit form reflects the changes occurring in social life. The lexical system of the language is a kind of "barometer" of social change and predilection of members of the language community. On one hand, the public consciousness is reflected in the vocabulary, on the other hand, the vocabulary and language in general influence the formation of the public consciousness. Changing social consciousness brings changes to the lexical system of the language in the form of a huge number of new elements (neologisms, foreign words, slang words, etc.), out of the active use of many words that signify concepts that have lost their relevance at this stage (City Council , the District Committee, the Council of Ministers, and others.), the emergence of new connotations in well-known words (new Russian, oligarch, etc.). The period of rapid changes and reforms that began in Russia in the second half of the 80s. The twentieth century, and still ongoing, has affected all spheres of society, primarily the economic, political, and cultural life of the country. It is therefore not surprising that the vocabulary of the Russian language of the last two decades has attracted the attention of many researchers as an object of linguistic analysis. D. Dunn, speaking of changes in the lexical system of the Russian language of the last two decades, identifies three trends, the first of which he calls the westernization of the Russian language (the second trend is a softening of attitudes towards slang and jargon, the third is a return to Church Slavonic and outdated vocabulary). The disintegration of the Soviet Union, the disintegration of the former political system, the change of the political system and the transition to a market economy opened wide the boundaries for foreign influence, giving Russian speakers an opportunity for wider access to various contacts with representatives of other languages and cultures. These extra-linguistic factors created the prerequisites for significantly intensifying the process of language borrowing. According to many linguists, this is one of the most active lexical processes observed today in the Russian language. The overwhelming majority of foreign words, borrowed over the past two decades, penetrates us from American English and from our side. The influence of American English on modern Russian is so extensive that in this sense no other world language can compare with it. Therefore, some philologists and journalists (V. Grigoriev, S. Nikolaev, V. Smilyansky, and others) speak not about westernization, but about the Americanization of the Russian language of the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries. Among the reasons for borrowing foreign language lexis are linguistic and extra-linguistic. The main linguistic reasons are traditionally considered to be: 1) the absence of a corresponding name (or its “pro-rush” in competition with borrowing); 2) providing a stylistic (emphatic) effect; 3) installation of positive or negative connotations, which the equivalent unit in the language does not have - the torus recipe; 4) the need to distinguish between meaningful concepts; 5) the need for specialization of concepts in a particular area of human activity; 6) the tendency to the “integral”, undifferentiated designation of the integral undivided into separate components of an object or phenomenon, i.e. in a word, and not a combination of words, which is often dictated by the needs of the principle of language economy; 7) the tendency to the elimination of homonyms or polysemy of the original word; 8) the tendency to enrich the language with new expressive means; 9) euphemization and cacophemization, etc.
Номер журнала Вестник науки №9 (9) том 4
Ссылка для цитирования:
Zubko D.D., Miribyan E.R., Fomenko L.N. AMERICANISMS IN MODERN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE // Вестник науки №9 (9) том 4. С. 7 - 11. 2018 г. ISSN 2712-8849 // Электронный ресурс: https://www.вестник-науки.рф/article/662 (дата обращения: 02.03.2024 г.)
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